Confocal Microscopy Internet Resources
Photometric detectors, such as photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiodes, are the preferred photon detectors for a number of applications, including laser scanning confocal microscopy. A large number of companies, therefore, offer these forms of technology to the research and teaching community. This list of resources highlights the major developers, manufacturers, and suppliers of point source detectors, as well as some of the best sites on the Internet that offer background and conceptual information relating to them.
Advanced Photonix, Inc. - A developer of standard and custom silicon detectors for more than 20 years, Advanced Photonix, Inc. offers a large selection of avalanche photodiodes, PIN diodes, and light emitting diodes on their website, which also features a useful collection of relevant technological papers and articles.
AME - AME has more than 25 years experience in designing, developing, and producing silicon based photodetectors. As a result of close cooperation with the Center for Industrial Research in Norway, SINTEF, and their customers, the company's processing technology has undergone continual improvements and today AME is able to offer a full range of customized silicon detector products such as PIN photodetectors for the visible and infrared, ultraviolet and blue enhanced photodetectors, nuclear and radiation detectors, avalanche silicon photodiodes, optohybrids, and more.
Detection Technology - With state-of-the-art facilities, Detection Technology designs and fabricates unique high performance silicon photodiodes, radiation detectors, related electronics, and detector modules. Visitors to the website can browse their product descriptions or utilize the Product Selector to view recommended items that are capable of meeting specific application needs.
Electron Tubes - Electron Tubes sells a vast collection of light detector assemblies made to meet customer specifications, photomultipliers, housings, power supplies, and other accessories. The website, which can be accessed in French or in English, features general information on detectors, as well as brochures and datasheets on all of their products.
Electro-Optical Systems - For two decades Electro-Optical Systems has been in service as an independent original equipment manufacturer of photodetector/photodiode components, detector subassemblies, and custom-designed instrumentation. Product descriptions and datasheets, an exhibition calendar, and an email link to request a quick price quote are included on the site.
Eudyna Devices - Formerly Fujitsu Compound Semiconductor, Inc., Eudyna Devices is a leading supplier of quality compound semiconductor components. The company's wide selection of lightwave and optoelectronic components includes laser diode modules, avalanche photodiodes, PIN receivers, lithium niobate modulators, and more. In addition to extensive product information, their website offers application and technical notes, a documentation library, and a schedule of upcoming conferences and exhibitions.
Fundamentals of Photonics: Optical Detectors and Human Vision - Part of an online course developed as part of Project STEP, this series of educational modules created by Jack Ready features everything from prerequisites and objectives to laboratory experiments and review questions. The basic concepts of optical detectors are thoroughly covered, as are the different types of detectors and more advanced technical topics.
GlobalSpec - The world’s largest database of technical products and services, GlobalSpec provides a glossary of devices that create, manipulate, and detect light via electrical means. To peruse detailed accounts of items such as photomultipliers and photodiodes, or to locate a specific product or listings of suppliers, visitors need only to follow the proper links.
Hamamatsu - Offering a wide array of photon detectors in addition to an excellent lineup of digital cameras, Hamamatsu specializes in photomultipliers, avalanche photodiodes, microchannel plates, and image intensifiers that are of significant interest to confocal microscopy.
Laser Components IG Inc. - A respected distributor of laser and electro-optical system components, this company offers a wide variety of optical detectors such as photodiodes. Their products are described in detail on the website and technical notes are often included.
Optical Radiation Detectors - The information on this website is provided by the University of Adelaide’s Department of Chemistry (Australia). Overviews and diagrams of photodiodes and photomultiplier tubes are featured and links to related topics are provided.
Pacific Silicon Sensor Inc. - Pacific Silicon Sensor Inc. is a designer and manufacturer of high quality silicon based sensors. The company's product line includes a wide range of standard photodiodes, avalanche photodiodes, and position sensitive detectors, both single and dual axis. In addition to standard products, Pacific Silicon can provide customers with custom configured detectors to meet their special application needs.
Perkin Elmer Optoelectronics - Perkin Elmer Optoelectronics is a technology leader providing market-driven, integrated solutions for biomedical imaging and industrial smart devices. The company offers a wide range of products that are well suited to meet the imaging needs of confocal microscopists, including channel photomultipliers and avalanche photodiodes, as well as CCD and CMOS area array detectors.
Photek - Photek is a high-technology company on the south coast of England that is closely connected with astronomers around the world. Though many of their detectors have been specially built for this field of research, Photek also offers an array of image intensifiers, image photon detectors, vacuum compatible detectors, and photomultiplier tubes that may be easily modified to meet various precise requirements, including those for microscopy applications.
Sensors Unlimited, Inc. - Founded in 1991 as a state-of-the-art research and development company, Sensors Unlimited Inc. is a world leader in indium gallium arsenide technology for short wave and near infrared imaging, spectroscopy, and free-space communications. All of the company's high-speed avalanche photodiodes and PIN receivers are available as stand-alone submounts, custom geometries, and packages.