Confocal Microscopy Internet Resources
Area Array (CCD and CMOS) Detectors
In recent years, optical microscopy has slowly migrated from a dependence on traditional photomicrography using emulsion-based film and has become increasingly reliant on technology that produces electronic images. Indeed, the choice of an imaging device is a critical decision for modern microscopists, but the range of light detection methods and the tremendous variety of imaging devices available can make the selection process difficult. This collection of area array detector resources is designed to simplify this process, providing links to many of the best sites on the Internet that offer CCD and CMOS detectors, as well as other imaging solutions to microscopists.
Adimec Electronic Imaging - Adimec is a global supplier of high-performance video cameras for use in machine vision, medical and military applications. The company is based in The Netherlands, with business offices in the United States and Japan. Adimec specializes in biomedical camera systems featuring 12-bit gray scale, high dynamic range, high full well potential, and high frame rates.
Andor Technology - Established in 1989, Andor Technology develops and manufactures instruments for the global spectroscopy and scientific imaging markets. The company’s range of CCD and intensified CCD camera systems are utilized across a wide range of fields, such as biotechnology, physics, and chemistry.
Apogee Instruments - Headquartered in Auburn, California, Apogee Instruments is a provider of high performance cooled CCD imaging solutions. Featured on their website is CCD University, a collection of short, but practical informative lessons on the concepts and terminology related to CCDs.
CCD Direct - CCD Direct is an online provider of optical systems, frame grabbers, CCD cameras, software, and accessories. The company’s website provides product information plus useful technical discussions, application notes, and a glossary of terms.
Cooke Corporation - Cooke Corporation manufactures and markets photonic instrumentation and complete systems, specializing in the areas of optical non-contact measuring and monitoring instrumentation, NIST traceable light measurement instrumentation, high speed electronic imaging and lighting systems, and high performance CCD imaging systems. In addition to information about their collection of products, Cooke's website features an array of informative articles about CCD cameras and other technology, as well as an admirable image gallery and a calendar of pertinent upcoming events.
Dage-MTI Inc. - A pioneer in the field of video technology, Dage-MTI Inc. is a United States based company that has received numerous patents. They offer a wide range of products, including CCD cameras, infrared cameras, low light level camera systems, monitors, digital image processors, and more. These products are described in detail on the website, and application notes as well as technical specifications are provided.
DALSA - DALSA is an international technology company that primarily designs, develops, and manufactures components, such as CCD and CMOS image sensors, for sale in the semiconductor and electronics industries. The company’s website features product descriptions and fabrication details, as well as an educational, comparative look at CCD and CMOS technologies and PDF files of related information.
Diagnostic Instruments - Offering a wide range of medical and scientific digital CCD camera systems, Diagnostic Instruments also is one of the largest providers of couplers for adapting digital cameras to microscope systems. The company's family of SPOT digital cameras includes models designed for imaging at high resolution in either grayscale or full color, using Bayer pattern CCDs and liquid crystal tunable filters (sliders).
Fairchild Imaging - Located in Milpitas, California, Fairchild Imaging develops and manufactures solid-state electronic imaging components, including CCD and CMOS image sensors, cameras, and systems for a wide variety of applications including optical and electron microscopy.
FujiFilm - Established in 1934, Fujifilm is a highly successful company that focuses on meeting the needs of imaging and information. In addition to films and traditional imaging systems, Fuji offers a tremendous collection of digital products and high-resolution cameras useful for microscopic photography. Also featured on the website are digital camera shooting tips, a Questions & Answers search, and customer support.
Hamamatsu Photonic Systems - Offering a wide array of photon detection devices in addition to an excellent lineup of digital cameras, Hamamatsu specializes in photomultipliers, avalanche photodiodes, microchannel plates, and image intensifiers that are of significant interest to confocal microscopy. Hamamatsu also produces a streak camera FLIM system, EMCCDs, as well as a wide spectrum of high-end digital camera solutions for all phases of optical microscopy.
Hitachi - Hitachi Ltd., headquartered in Tokyo, is a leading global electronics company that offers a wide range of systems, products, and services, including information systems, electronic devices, power and industrial systems, consumer products, materials, and financial services. The company's Visual Technologies Group offers color and monochrome cameras, monitors, and accessories for microscopy, robotics, distance learning, and a large number of other imaging applications.
Indigo Systems - Since it was founded in 1996 in Santa Barbara, California, Indigo Systems has become a leading manufacturer of advanced infrared cameras, providing complete camera, software, and enclosure solutions for commercial, industrial, surveillance, Homeland Security, research and development, and military and government applications. The company's website offers extensive information on their products and services, which include a wide variety of infrared cameras, OEM IR sensor engines, focal plane arrays, and readout integrated circuits, as well as an infrared imaging primer, technical papers, and an image gallery.
JAI PULNiX - The Industrial Products Division at JAI PULNiX specializes in miniaturized solid state cameras and accessories for the industrial, automation, and scientific imaging markets. PULNiX video products offer a wide variety of practical features such as externally-selected high speed electronic full-frame shuttering, asynchronous (random) shuttering, integration, built-in video enhancement, electronic exposure to eliminate auto iris lenses, area of interest scanning, intensifiers and gated intensifiers, remote imagers, fiberoptic faceplates, digital output, Y/C and RGB color outputs, and external pixel clocking.
Kodak Image Sensors Solutions - A leader in CCD technology for well over 20 years, Kodak offers a broad product portfolio of world-class, high performance solid state image sensors, ranging from CCDs to the company's new line of CMOS performance imagers. The products developed and marketed by Kodak's Image Sensors Solutions division are designed for a broad spectrum of applications and their website includes in-depth coverage of products, application support, and technical papers and articles.
Micron Imaging Products - Founded and incorporated in 1978, Micron has become one of the world's leading providers of advanced semiconductor solutions, including many products for the biomedical research arena. The company manufactures and markets DRAMs, Flash memory, CMOS image sensors, other semiconductor components, and memory modules. Their informative website includes a significant amount of content regarding the basics of CMOS imaging and the latest advances in CMOS technology.
Optronics - Optronics' innovative imaging systems are designed for microscopic research and inspection, and have earned a solid reputation in the life sciences, biomedical, forensic, and industrial fields. The company offers a wide array of state-of-the-art products, including the highly popular MagnaFire camera, and technical papers, articles, FAQs, and links to related sites are provided on their website.
Panasonic Vision Systems - Panasonic is a global leader in designing and manufacturing industrial CCD cameras, board cameras, digital and analog video recorders, monitors and other imaging products for an almost infinite range of applications. Product details and specifications can be found on the company's website, which also features numerous resources, such as FAQs, information and software downloads, links to trade magazines and other related sites, and a discontinued product list.
PCO AG - In 1987, PCO Computer Optics GmbH was founded with the objective to develop and to produce specialized fast and sensitive video camera systems, primarily for scientific purposes. Since then the company has become one of the foremost in the industry, offering digital camera systems with high dynamic range, high resolution, high speed, and low noise based on both CCD and CMOS technology. Their well-designed website highlights their numerous products and features a FAQ, software downloads, informative articles, and manuals.
Photonics.com - A comprehensive website that is one of the most well respected in the industry, Photonics offers daily headline news, a calendar of trade shows and other pertinent upcoming events, business and technology articles, product reviews, an employment center, and extensive directory that includes a Buyers' Guide, a Corporate Guide, a Photonics Industry Handbook, and a dictionary that contains more than 5,800 technical terms, definitions, and illustrations.
QImaging - QImaging designs, manufactures, and markets high performance digital cameras for imaging in life science and industrial applications. The company's specialty is CCD digital cameras for demanding applications in quantitative image analysis and high-resolution images for publication. All QImaging cameras are Firewire IEEE 1394 interfaced for simple connectivity, portability with laptop computer use, and control of multiple cameras from one controller.
RedShirt Imaging - Located in the Atlanta suburb of Decatur, Georgia, RedShirt offers state-of-the-art imaging systems for recording voltage, calcium, pH, and intrinsic imaging signals from biological specimens. The company's goal is to provide the biological community with high speed, high sensitivity, fully-integrated imaging solutions at a reasonable price.
Rockwell Scientific - A world leader in high-end electronic imaging systems and components, Rockwell Scientific offers a variety of photodetectors and related equipment. The website also features a particularly informative, in-depth article that compares and contrasts CMOS and CCD imagers.
Roper Scientific - Roper Scientific, which represents the synergistic union of Princeton Instruments and Photometrics, is a respected manufacturer of high-performance instruments for digital imaging and spectroscopy. The company's impressive combined websites offer a wealth of useful information, including application briefs and notes, a glossary, an encyclopedia of key concepts and terms, plus imaging profiles, technical notes, product support, and software downloads.
Sony Business Solutions and Systems Company - The Sony Business Solutions and Systems Company (BSSC) is dedicated to providing customers with the most advanced audio and visual equipment and systems for broadcast, production, business, industrial, government, medical, and education markets. Sony BSSC also provides specialized equipment and systems for data recording, duplication, electronic photography/publishing, videoconferencing, high-definition video, interactive and security applications. Among their many offerings are a host of CCD video cameras well designed for use by microscopists.
STMicroelectronics Imaging Division - Formerly VLSI Vision Ltd., the Imaging Division of STMicroelectronics offers CMOS chipset products for use in a wide range of imaging applications. The website features descriptions and details of the company's products, as well as information and reproduced articles about CMOS technology and its many advantages.